The POP or procedural Oriented Programming came before the OOP or object-oriented programming. The focus on OOP is data and security and real-world object programming whereas the focus of POP was the approach to solving the problem in a systematic manner. The POP came after the assembly language and was focused on the development of application software but later when business required security and data abstraction than OOP concept was introduced to make the code more usable and also provided more security and functionality than POP to deal with the real-life scenario where data sent from one program to other and the company have to keep their code hidden.
Difference Between OOPs and POPs
OOP VS POP
|OOP stands for object-oriented programming||POP stands for procedural oriented programming|
|OOP is more real-world oriented programming as use the objects and its function that are similar in the real world||POP is more getting things done programming it existed before the OOP to get the task done on machines|
|The programs use various objects and classes||The programs use various functions and iterations|
|Object-oriented programming uses a bottom-up approach. The classes are initiated when they are called by the main program.||Procedural oriented programming uses a top-down approach. The program is divided into functions and they perform various tasks.|
|The data is stored as local values in classes and cannot be accessed by outside functions||The data is stored as global values and therefore can be accessed by any function|
|There is more code reusability that is achieved with classes and objects. This leads to shorter programs that are easy to read and debug||There is less code reusability that is achieved via function calls only. This leads to lengthy programs and hard to read and debug.|
|The functions of the object are linked with the help of message parsing||The functions of the programs are interconnected to each other with help of parameter parsing|
|In OOP, the objects can move and communicate with the help of member function||In POP, the data can move freely from one function to another within the program|
|The OOP gives more importance to data than functions for execution||The POP gives more importance functions rather than data for execution|
|In OOP, the data is protected in the classes with the help of an access modifier in which the data can be private or public.||In POP, the data is opened to all the functions it does have a local variable but this not prevent to access from the main function|
|In OOP, the functions and data can easily be added by adding them to their respective classes||In POP, to add function and data who have to write more code than OOP and take care of variables and function names|
|In OOP there exists a concept of data abstraction which helps the programmer to specify the data to be viewed||In POP there exists no method to hide the data or the code from the programmer or user|
|OOP supports data overloading which means the same function can support different parameters or multiple functions can support the same name||POP does not support data overloading|
|OOP support Inheritance which means functions can be reused from one class to another||POP does not support inheritance there is no concept to reuse the function|
|Security of the data is focused more than to solve the problem||Less focus on security and more focus on the approach to solving the problem|
|Examples of OOP include C++, JAVA, PHP, etc.||Examples of POP include FORTRAN, Basic, COBOL, C, etc.|
What is Procedural Oriented Programming (POP)?
Procedural Oriented Programming (POP) is a programming methodology that involves writing a list of instructions where each instruction mentions to the computer – “what to do & how to do”. This programming methodology focuses more on the procedure (functions) which describe steps for the computation to follow when the user provides inputs or while operating on the data structures.
The cornerstone of this programming is the division of large instructions into functions & modules and then reusing them in writing code. Each function has a clearly defined set of instructions to follow. Once these functions are created, we can call them with their respective function name anywhere in the program. This helps to reduce the lines of code and makes it easier to debug.
Characteristics of Procedural Oriented Programming (POP)
- More Importance is given to the procedure (functions) rather than data handling.
- The problem is solved as a sequence of steps.
- The program is divided into several functions and each function contains a clear set of instructions to follow.
- Most of the data and function modules are global hence a complete program is made available to the public.
- The data can move freely means the function does not restrict any data for processing.
- Other characteristics involve sequence selection, iteration, and modularization.
Advantages of Procedural Oriented Programming (POP)
- Functions increases code reusability.
- Easier to track the program flow.
- Iterations and loops reduce the repetition.
Disadvantages of Procedural Oriented Programming (POP)
- As the data is global therefore no privacy is maintained.
- Their code maintenance is difficult.
- Because of the programming complexity, the development time is more.
- When the code increases, difficulty in finding and maintaining the sub procedure or functions of the program increases.
- Although functions can be rescued other programming paradigms offer better code reusability.
What is Object Oriented Programming (OOP)?
Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is a programming methodology that is based on the concept of “objects” containing the program code and data field. The program code present in these objects is in the form of procedures (functions or methods). The main focus of OOPs is to combine the procedure (functions) and data into a single unit “Object”. Therefore OOPs focus on objects rather than procedures.
The program code functions inside the objects can only access the data field of the object, this provides data security. The complete code is so designed such that various objects can interact with each other, without the necessity to provide the inner mechanism of its working.
Characteristics of Object Oriented Programming (OOP)
- Classes and Objects are the main concepts in OOP. The classes contain the data members and member functions whereas the objects are the instance of the classes.
- The inheritance concept in OOPs provides the reusability of the code by extending the functions and data members from the base class to the child class.
- Polymorphism concept in OOPs, allows the object or function to take multiple forms through function overriding and function overloading.
- Abstraction in OOPs is a technique of providing the required information of the objects that are relevant to the user.
- Encapsulation is another concept in oops that wraps the code and data into a single unit.
Advantages of Object Oriented Programming
- Simplify the code into real world objects increasing clarity.
- Programmers can separately work on the code without interfering with each other.
- The code can be extended by introducing new functions and data members in the child classes.
- Changes inside a class do not affect other parts of the program.
- the code maintainability increases and it can be upgraded effortlessly.
Disadvantages of Object oriented programming
- The Code creation is more complicated than procedural programming.
- The programs are larger than normal procedural programs.
- Message parsing can make the debugging complicated.
- Dynamic memory is required for runtime binding.