In the old day’s people used the antennas to receive the signal from the nearby tower to watch the Television but today the modern services such as youtube and the google like application do not use the traffic in such a way and today the internet services have to route the data to the specific places and so they know where their information is going, and this can be achieved with the help of transmission control protocol and the internet protocol. You may have noticed these protocols usage vaguely in your network card setting and the internet configuration, but you may question what exactly is TCP/IP. Also if you for the first time reading about the TCP/IP reference model be sure to check out the OSI model first which will also give you a great understanding for the data transmission because the OSI model was made earlier the internet came into the commercial use and the TCP/IP model was made as an improved and simplified version of the OSI model during the internet was becoming widespread technology.
In metaphorical terms, you can understand them as the Layers in a sandwich instead of the bread and the vegetables they are filled with the computer codes rather than the delicious ingredient.
The Topmost layer is called the application layer and this is the layer with which your web browser directly interacts with you can see all the images and the text and other content on the website with the help of this layer, this topmost layer has many protocols such as HTTP if you are checking any website or SMTP if you forwarding any mail. This layer is made up of three layers of the OSI reference model and that is the Session Layer, Presentation Layer, and the Session Layer. Many protocols are working on the application layer to make information and data communication in a standardized method.
The transport layer consists of the TCP and UDP, these are responsible for the data transmission onto the physical network. Any of the protocol that is used in the Application layer is forwarded into the specifically assigned port number so that TCP or the UDP can know from which port number exactly the data is coming from, for example, most of the activity goes from the HTTP protocol which is assigned a specific port number 80 and this port number will always have a great amount of traffic.
After the specific protocol in the application, the layer has sent its data into the specific port number then it is handled by the TCP or the Transmission control protocol and the work of this protocol is to divide the data stream and chop them down to smaller data packets that can be sent across the internet to their specific location.
For the data packets to reach their destination the TCP slaps the data packets with a header which contain the address of the receiver so every data packet can be independent on their own, the TCP is also responsible for assembling back the data packet in the order so that the packet data seems like a continuous stream of data to the receiver. One more similar work that is assigned to the TCP protocol is that of error correction checking whether the data packets that are arriving are in the right format or received completely or any packet did not go missing during the transmission and if the packet goes missing they have to travel back to the sender address.
Now after the management of the data packets is done they have to be pushed on the network layer where the actual physical transmission of the data packets takes place with the help of the router and the switches. The data packet transmission at this layer occurs with the help of an IP protocol whose responsibility is to slap the data packets with the IP address of the sender and the receiver. Now when the data packets know exactly where the exactly going, the other work of the network layer that follows is the sending the data packets into the RIGHT physical machine with the help of the MAC address and also converting the receiving data packets from the electrical impulses into the binary format so that your computer can understand it and it all happens with the Network Interface Card (NIC) that is the hardware that comes embedded when you have bought you laptop or desktop.
The data packets have to travel through all these layers and it and it is all possible due to the data switching technique where the data is transmitted in form of data packets than a continuous stream of data, therefore avoiding the bottlenecking of any network switch in the network layer, these data packets are capable of choosing the least traffic route and then travel through that selected path, this avoids the overburdening of the data on any network.
The TCP/IP model and their different layers are responsible for all the data transmission that happens on a computer device and if these types of the standard may have not been made your computer today might have to calculate the data routes and the division of the right data packets all this process might be happening on your own devices which might have overburdened the processors of our devices and slow down the operating system.